Acute respiratory distress syndrome: Predictors of noninvasive ventilation failure and intensive care unit mortality in clinical practice.
J Crit Care. 2016 Feb ;31(1):26-30. Epub 2015 Oct 30. PMID: 26643859
PURPOSE: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is used as an initial ventilatory support in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but its utility is unclear, and persistence in those who do not improve may delay intubation and lead to adverse outcomes. Hence, it becomes imperative to have a clear understanding of selecting patients who will benefit from this modality.
METHODS: In this prospective observational study, we included all consecutive adults, over a 3-year period, who fulfilled criteria for ARDS by the Berlin definition. Basic demographics, ventilatory support, intensive care unit course, and outcome were recorded.
RESULTS: Of 170 patients, 96 (56.47%) were initially managed with NIV. Noninvasive ventilation failure was seen in 42 (43.75%) of 96, and low baseline PaO2/FIO2, shock, and ARDS severity were associated with NIV failure. Overall intensive care unit mortality was 63 (37.1%) of 170, and high Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, low PaO2/FIO2, shock, and ARDS severity were associated with increased mortality. Noninvasive ventilation failure and mortality were significantly higher in moderate and severe ARDS.
CONCLUSIONS: Noninvasive ventilation maybe useful in selected patients with mild ARDS but should be used with great caution in moderate and severe ARDS, as failure risk is high. In addition, low PaO2/FIO2 and shock are associated with NIV failure. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, shock, low PaO2/FIO2, and ARDS severity are associated with increased mortality.