Antioxidant-rich Clove Extract, A Strong Antimicrobial Agent against Urinary Tract Infections-causing Bacteria.
Trop Life Sci Res. 2021 Jun ;32(2):45-63. Epub 2021 Jun 29. PMID: 34367514
Vanessa Lee Rosarior
Clove () is an exotic culinary spice that has been used for centuries due to its known antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The main aim of this study is to compare the antimicrobial activity and antioxidant capacity of clove ethanolic extract (CEE) and commercial clove essential oil (CEO) at a standardised eugenol content. Disk diffusion assay showed that CEE (2000μg) was able to exhibit broad-spectrum inhibition against both Gram negative and Gram positive Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)-causing pathogens:(19.7± 0.6 mm)>(18 mm)>(14.7± 0.6 mm)>(12.7± 0.6 mm)>(12.3± 0.6 mm) (according to the size of inhibition zone). Interestingly, the comparison between CEE and commercial CEO revealed that the former demonstrated stronger antimicrobial and antioxidative properties at similar eugenol concentration. The ECof DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and reducing power assay for CEE were determined as 0.037 mg/mL, 0.68 mg/mL and 0.44 mg/mL, respectively. Besides eugenol, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analyses identified the presence of kaempferol, gallic acid and catechin in CEE. As a conclusion, we concluded that there was a possible synergistic effect between eugenol and the others active compounds especially kaempferol which led to the observed bioactivities in CEE.