Artemisia Absinthium improves spatial performance and neuronal injury induced by amyloid- beta in the CA1 hippocampal area of male Wistar rats.
Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2021 Aug 31:107506. Epub 2021 Aug 31. PMID: 34478861
Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder. It is characterized by the presence of two aberrant structures in the brain, those are, amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, along with neuronal death. Amyloid-beta further exacerbates the metabolic decline and results in cognitive impairments. Because of the favorable antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Artemisia absinthium (wormwood), this study aimed to evaluate the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of this plant on spatial memory performance, neuronal injury, and apoptosis induced by amyloid-beta. Forty-eight male Wistar rats (220-250 g) were divided into the following groups: 1) control; 2) sham (solvent; ICV); 3) amyloid-beta 1-40 (ICV); and 4) amyloid-beta plus A. absinthium (10, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day; gavage). Congo red and TUNEL staining were performed to investigate the neuronal injury. Also, the Morris water maze (MWM) test was used to evaluate the spatial memory of the experimental groups. The results showed that spatial memory for finding the hidden platform in the MWM task decreased significantly in the amyloid-beta group, compared to the control and sham groups. In contrast, treatment with A. absinthium improved spatial memory dose-dependently and reduced tissue degeneration, amyloid plaques, and apoptosis. It seems that the hydroalcoholic extract of A. absinthium, due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, can effectively reverse spatial memory deficits and reduce amyloid-beta plaques.