Asiatic acid protects against hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Asiatic acid protects against hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury by inactivation of Kupffer cells via PPARγ/NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway.
Oncotarget. 2017 Oct 17 ;8(49):86339-86355. Epub 2017 Sep 21. PMID: 29156799
Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) contributes to major complications in clinical practice affecting perioperative morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence suggests the key role of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR) family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammaosme activation on the pathogenesis of I/R injury. Asiatic acid (AA) is a pentacyclic triterpene derivative presented with versatile activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammation and hepatoprotective effects. This study was designed to determine whether AA had potential hepatoprotective benefits against hepatic I/R injury, as well as to unveil the underlying mechanisms involved in the putative effects. Mice subjected to warm hepatic I/R, and Kupffer cells (KCs) or RAW264.7 cells challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/HO, were pretreated with AA. Administration of AA significantly attenuated hepatic histopathological damage, global inflammatory level, apoptotic signaling level, as well as NLRP3 inflammasome activation. These effects were correlated with increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Conversely, pharmacological inhibition of PPARγ by GW9662 abolished the protective effects of AA on hepatic I/R injury and in turn aggravated NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Activation of NLRP3 inflammasome was most significant in nonparenchymal cells (NPCs). Depletion of KCs by gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) further attenuated the detrimental effects of GW9662 on hepatic I/R as well as NLRP3 activation., AA concentration-dependently inhibited LPS/HO-induced NLRP3 inflammaosome activation in KCs and RAW264.7 cells. Either GW9662 or genetic knockdown of PPARγ abolished the AA-mediated inactivation of NLRP3 inflammasome. Mechanistically, AA attenuated I/R or LPS/HO-induced ROS production and phosphorylation level of JNK, p38 MAPK and IκBα but not ERK, a mechanism dependent on PPARγ. Finally, AA blocked the deleterious effects of LPS/HO-induced macrophage activation on hepatocyte viability, and improved survival in a lethal hepatic I/R injury model. Collectively, these data suggest that AA is effective in mitigating hepatic I/R injury through attenuation of KCs activation via PPARγ/NLRP3 inflammasome signaling pathway.