Berberine-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers mitigate warm hepatic ischemia/reperfusion-induced lesion through modulation of HMGB1/TLR4/NF-κB signaling and autophagy.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2021 Sep 3:112122. Epub 2021 Sep 3. PMID: 34489150
Abdallah M Gendy
OBJECTIVE: Berberine (BBR) is a known alkaloid that has verified its protective effects against ischemia/reperfusion (I/RN) lesion in multiple organs but its poor oral bioavailability limited its use. Despite the previous works, its possible impact on the warm hepatic I/RN-induced lesion is not clear. Accordingly, a nanostructured lipid carrier of BBR (NLC BBR) was developed for enhancing its efficiency and to inspect its protective mechanistic against warm hepatic I/RN.
METHODS: NLC BBR formula was evaluated pharmaceutically. Wistar rats were orally pre-treated with either BBR or NLC BBR (100 mg/kg) for 2 weeks followed by hepatic I/RN (30 min/24 h). Biochemical, ELISA, qPCR, western blot, histopathological, and immunohistochemical studies were performed.
KEY FINDINGS: Optimized NLC BBR was prepared with a particle size of 130 ± 8.3 nm. NLC BBR divulged its aptitude to safeguard the hepatic tissues partly due to anti-inflammatory capacity through downsizing the HMGB1/TLR4/NF-κB trajectory with concomitant rebating of TNF-α, iNOS, COX-2, and MPO content. Furthermore, NLC BBR antiapoptotic trait was confirmed by boosting the prosurvival protein (Bcl-2) and cutting down the pro-apoptotic marker (Bax). Moreover, its antioxidant nature was confirmed by TAC uplifting besides MDA subsiding. On the other hand, NLC BBR action embroiled autophagy flux spiking merit exemplified in Beclin-1 and LC3-II enhancement. Finally, NLC BBR administration ascertained its hepatocyte guarding action by recovering the histopathological ailment and diminishing serum transaminases.
CONCLUSION: NLC BBR purveyed reasonable shielding mechanisms and subsided incidents contemporaneous to warm hepatic I/RN lesion in part, by moderating HMGB1/TLR4/NF-κB inﬂammatory signaling, autophagy, and apoptosis.