Bisphenol-A and Female Infertility: A Possible Role of Gene-Environment Interactions.
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015 ;12(9):11101-16. Epub 2015 Sep 7. PMID: 26371021
BACKGROUND: Bisphenol-A (BPA) is widely used and ubiquitous in the environment. Animal studies indicate that BPA affects reproduction, however, the gene-environment interaction mechanism(s) involved in this association remains unclear. We performed a literature review to summarize the evidence on this topic.
METHODS: A comprehensive search was conducted in PubMed using as keywords BPA, gene, infertility and female reproduction. Full-text articles in both human and animals published in English prior to December 2014 were selected.
RESULTS: Evidence shows that BPA can interfere with endocrine function of hypothalamic-pituitary axis, such as by changing gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH) secretion in hypothalamus and promoting pituitary proliferation. Such actions affect puberty, ovulation and may even result in infertility. Ovary, uterus and other reproductive organs are also targets of BPA. BPA exposure impairs the structure and functions of female reproductive system in different times of life cycle and may contribute to infertility. Both epidemiological and experimental evidences demonstrate that BPA affects reproduction-related gene expression and epigenetic modification that are closely associated with infertility. The detrimental effects on reproduction may be lifelong and transgenerational.
CONCLUSIONS: Evidence on gene-environment interactions, especially from human studies, is still limited. Further research on this topic is warranted.