Cardio-protective and Anti-atherosclerosis Effect of Crocetin on Vitamin D3 and HFD-induced Atherosclerosis in Rats.
J Oleo Sci. 2021 ;70(10):1447-1459. PMID: 34615830
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a chronic disease and causes the highest rate of death globally. CVD-related deaths account for 80% of all deaths in low and middle-income countries, such as China. Crocetin (CT), a carotenoid phytoconstituent already confirm their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in various diseases animal models. In the study, we make effort to access the cardio-protective effect of Crocetin against vitamin D3 and high fat induced atherosclerosis in rats and scrutinize the underlying mechanism. Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were used in this study and rats were divided into different groups and high fat diet and vitamin D was used for induction the atherosclerosis. The rats were received oral administration of crocetin (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg) and simvastatin (0.5 mg/kg) until 30 days. At the end of the experimental period, lipid, cardiac markers, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, pro-inflammatory cytokines and atherogenic index were estimated. The mRNA expression of Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) in aortic tissue of the atherosclerotic rats. Crocetin significantly reduced the aortic membrane thickness and platelet aggregation rates. Crocetin also dose-dependently reduced total cholesterol (TC), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), triacylglycerol (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and augmented the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level. Additionally, Crocetin significantly (p<0.001) abridged the level of malonaldehyde (MDA) and augmented the level of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Furthermore, Crocetin significantly (p<0.001) dose-dependently reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory mediators. Crocetin attenuated mRNA expression of VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and MCP-1. Crocetin had anti-atherosclerosis and cardio-protective effects on vitamin D3 and high fat induced atherosclerosis in rats through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant mechanisms.