Carnosic acid prevents dextran sulfate sodium-induced acute colitis. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Carnosic acid prevents dextran sulfate sodium-induced acute colitis associated with the regulation of the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway.
Sci Rep. 2017 Sep 8 ;7(1):11036. Epub 2017 Sep 8. PMID: 28887507
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) with high prevalence in humans. Carnosic acid (CA) has been reported to possess antioxidative properties; however, its role in IBDs has not been determined. In the present study, we found that CA significantly prevented the loss of body weight and shortening of colon length in acute colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Pronounced infiltration of immune cells and a loss of crypt architecture and goblet cells were ameliorated by CA. CA significantly decreased the activity of MPO and infiltration of F4/80macrophages in the colon. DSS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA and protein levels in the colon were also attenuated by CA. CA decreased the activation of p65 and c-Jun signalling. CA inhibited DSS-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation by reducing caspase 1 activity. In addition, CA increased the level of Nrf2 and prevented the degradation of Nrf2 via ubiquitination by blocking the interaction between Cullin3 and Keap1, which resulted in the decrease of Nrf2 target genes. Finally, GSH levels and SOD activity were increased after CA treatment, while MDA and iNOS levels were significantly reduced. Taken together, our data showed that CA may be useful as a potential therapeutic candidate for IBDs.