Melatonin treatment enhances therapeutic effects of exosomes against acute liver ischemia-reperfusion injury.
Am J Transl Res. 2017 ;9(4):1543-1560. Epub 2017 Apr 15. PMID: 28469765
This study tests the hypothesis that combined melatonin and exogenic adipose mesenchymal stem cell (ADMSC)-derived exosome treatment offers superior protection against liver ischemia-reperfusion (LIR) injury compared to either alone. In vitro studies utilized a macrophage cell line (RAW) pretreated with lipopolysaccharide and hepatocytes pretreated with melatonin or exosomes before hypoxia treatment, while in vitro experiments involved analyses of liver specimens from male adult Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 50) equally categorized into sham controls (SC), LIR only, LIR-exosome (100µg, 30 minute post-LIR), LIR-melatonin (20 mg/kg, 30 minute post-LIR and 50 mg/kg at 6 and 18 hours post-LIR), and LIR-exosome-melatonin groups. In vitro studies showed suppression of inflammation (MIF, MMP-9, IL-1β, TNF-α, COX-2) and oxidative stress (NOX-1, NOX-2, oxidized protein)/apoptosis (cleaved caspase 3 and PARP) by exosome and exosome/melatonin treatment, respectively (all P<0.001). In vivo data demonstrated lowest liver injury score and plasma AST concentrations in LIR-exosome-melatonin group compared with other groups (P<0.001). Besides, expressions of inflammatory markers at protein (ICAM-1, IL-1β, MMP-9, TNF-α, NF-κB, RANTES) and cellular (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD161+, CD11+, CD14+, F4/80) levels, and protein expressions of apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3, PARP), oxidative stress (NOX-1, NOX-2), DNA damage (γ-H2AX) and mitochondrial damage (cytosolic cytochrome-C) markers displayed a patternsimilar to that of liver injury score, whereas protein expression of anti-oxidants (HO-1, NQO-1) showed progressive increase from SC to the combined treatment group (all P<0.001). In conclusion, combined exosome-melatonin regimen was superior to either alone in protecting the liver against ischemia-reperfusion injury.