Discovery of small molecule acting as multitarget inhibitor of colorectal cancer. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Discovery of small molecule acting as multitarget inhibitor of colorectal cancer by simultaneous blocking of the key COX-2, 5-LOX and PIM-1 kinase enzymes.
Bioorg Chem. 2021 Oct ;115:105171. Epub 2021 Jul 16. PMID: 34303896
Mostafa M M El-Miligy
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second cause of cancer death worldwide. Inhibitors of COX-2, 5-LOX and PIM-1 kinase were very effective in the treatment and prevention of CRC in mouse models in vivo. Furthermore, thymol was confirmed to inhibit CRC cell proliferation in cancer cell lines and inhibitory activity against COX-2 and 5-LOX. On the other hand, 4-thiazolidinone pharmacophore was incorporated in the structures of various reported COX-2, 5-LOX and PIM kinase inhibitors. Consequently, the aim of the present investigation was to combat CRC by synthesis and biological evaluation of new thymol - 4-thiazolidinone hybrids as multitarget anticancer agents that could inhibit the key COX-2, 5-LOX and PIM-1 kinase enzymes simultaneously. Compounds 5a-d and 5g displayed inhibitory activity against COX-2 nearly equal to Celecoxib with high selectivity index (SI). Moreover, compounds 5b-e showed 5-LOX inhibitory activity nearly equal to the reference Quercetin while compounds 5a, 5f and 5g elicited inhibitory activity slightly lower than Quercetin. Furthermore, in vivo formalin-induced paw edema test revealed that, compounds 5a, 5c, 5f and 5g showed higher % inhibition than Celecoxib and compounds 5a, 5f and 5g showed higher % inhibition than Diclofenac sodium. In addition, compounds 5a-c, 5e-g showed in vivo superior gastrointestinal safety profile as Celecoxib in fasted rats. Besides, compounds 5d, 5e and 5g exhibited the highest activity against human CRC cell lines (Caco-2 and HCT-116) at doses less than their ECon normal human cells. Furthermore, compounds 5e and 5g induced apoptosis-dependent death by above 50% in the treated CRC cell lines. Moreover, compounds 5e and 5g induced caspase activation by>50% in human CRC. Also, compounds 5d, 5e and 5g showed in vitro inhibitory activity against both PIM-1\2 kinases comparable to the reference Staurosporine. In silico docking studies were concordant with the biological results. In conclusion, compound 5g, of simple chemical structure, achieved the target goal of inhibiting three targets leading to inhibition of human CRC cell proliferation. It inhibited the target key enzymes COX-2, 5-LOX and PIM-1\2 kinase in vitro. Besides, it revealed in vitro inhibition of cell proliferation in cancer cell lines via activation of caspase 3\7 dependent-apoptosis in human CRC cell lines. In addition, it elicited in vivo anti-inflammatory activity in formalin-induced paw edema test and in vivo oral safety in gastric ulcerogenic activity test.