Elevated Concentrations of Bisphenols, Benzophenones, and Antimicrobials in Pantyhose Collected from Six Countries.
Environ Sci Technol. 2018 09 18 ;52(18):10812-10819. Epub 2018 Aug 23. PMID: 30137966
Adela Jing Li
Pantyhose, a skin-tight item of clothing made of synthetic fibers and worn by women in many countries, is a source of exposure to several endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Little is known regarding the occurrence of and dermal exposure to chemicals present in pantyhose. In this study, concentrations and profiles of 23 endocrine-disrupting chemicals, including bisphenols, benzophenones, chlorophenols, parabens, and triclocarban (TCC), were determined in 74 pantyhose samples collected from 6 countries. Pantyhose samples were analyzed by two extraction methods: complete dissolution and ultrasonic extraction. Dissolution of the fabric in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol/chloroform yielded concentrations of several target chemicals that were up to 286 times higher than in the ultrasonic extraction. Bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol A (BPA) were found in 100% and 96% of the samples at median concentrations of 1430 and 14.3 ng/g, respectively. Several brands of pantyhose contained BPS, bisphenol F (BPF), benzophenone-1 (BP-1), ethyl-paraben (EtP), and TCC at concentrations of milligrams per gram. Benzophenone-3 (BP-3), 4-hydroxy benzoic acid (4-HB), and methyl- (MeP) and propyl-parabens (PrP) were found in≥85% of the samples at median concentrations on the order of several tens to hundreds of nanograms per gram of fabric. Pantyhose made in Japan and China with 21-50% Spandex contained the highest concentrations of BPS (2.2 mg/g), BP-1 (2.4 mg/g), and EtP (88 μg/g). Calculated dermal exposure dosesto BPS, BP-1, and EtP by women via pantyhose were as high as 45 900, 50 600, and 1800 picograms per kilogram of body weight per day, respectively.