Evaluation of anti-HSV-1 activity and toxicity of hydroethanolic extract of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Sch.Bip. (Asteraceae).
Phytomedicine. 2019 Mar 1 ;55:249-254. Epub 2018 Aug 13. PMID: 30668436
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) is widely distributed throughout the world's population. The virus spreads through direct contact with an infected individual. After primary infection, the virus remains in a latent state, and the recurrence of herpetic lesions is common. Standard treatment is performed with nucleoside analogues, but the selection of resistant strains have occurred, thus requiring the continual search for new antiviral agents. Plant extracts, fractions, and isolated compounds are a good source for studying possible antiviral compounds.
HYPOTHESIS: Among plants with antiviral activity, the crude extract of aerial parts of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Sch.Bip. (Asteraceae) have previously shown to inhibit HSV-1 infection in vitro.
METHODS: The present study investigated the chemical composition of a crude hydroethanolic extract (CHE) of T. parthenium, and in vivo safety and therapeutic efficacy against HSV-1 infection.
RESULTS: Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that the CHE was composed of phenolic acids (chlorogenic acids) and sesquiterpene lactones (parthenolide). Acute and subchronic toxicity and genotoxicity tests in vivo showed that oral CHE administration did not result in signs of toxicity, with no genotoxic potential. The CHE was also safe for topical administration, in which no irritation of the epidermis was observed in treated animals. Tests of topical and oral therapeutic efficacy showed that the CHE was effective against HSV-1 infection. Topical administration was the most effective, the results for which were comparable to acyclovir.
CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that the CHE from aerial parts of Tanacetum parthenium has in vivo anti-HSV-1 activity and is safe for oral and topical application.