Fecal microbiota transplantation in ulcerative colitis.
Acta Gastroenterol Belg. 2019 Oct-Dec;82(4):519-528. PMID: 31950808
BACKGROUND/STUDY AIMS: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), a treatment aiming to restore dysbiosis by transferring stool from a healthy donor into the patient, has cure rates up to 90% in the management of recurrent Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) diarrhea. This paper tries to determine whether FMT is safe and effective in the treatment of ulcerative colitis, and what the potential characteristics could be of a 'super donor'.
METHODS: The PubMed database was searched using the term fecal microbiota transplantation inflammatory bowel disease. Only articles discussing the use of FMT in the treatment of ulcerative colitis were withheld. Finally, 31 original studies (10 case reports, 17 open label trials, 4 randomized controlled trials (RCTs)) and 1 meta-analysis were included.
RESULTS: So far 4 RCTs have investigated the effectiveness of FMT in treating UC. Three RCTs reported a significant difference between FMT and a control group, achieving clinical remission in 24 to 44% of patients (vs. 5 to 20% of patients in control groups). The meta-analysis confirms that significantly more patients in the FMT-group achieve clinical remission in comparison to patients in the control group (p=0,01) : 42,1% vs. 22,6%. The composition of the gut microbiota plays an important role in the success of FMT-treatment.
CONCLUSION: FMT seems to be a promising and safe therapy in the management of UC. Further research, with larger cohorts, will be needed to confirm this and to determine the optimal FMT procedure.