Enhanced radiation sensitivity in prostate cancer by gold-nanoparticles.
Clin Invest Med. 2008 ;31(3):E160-7. PMID: 18544279
PURPOSE: Nanotechnology is an emerging field with significant translational potential in medicine. In this study, we applied gold nanoparticles (GNP) to enhance radiation sensitivity and growth inhibition in radiation-resistant human prostate cancer cells.
METHODS: Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were synthesized using HAuCl4 as the gold particle source and NaBH4 as the reductant. Either thio-glucose or sodium citrate was then added to the solution separately to bind the GNPs to form thio-glucose-capped gold nanoparticles (Glu-GNP) and neutral gold nanoparticles (TGS-GNPs). Human prostate carcinoma DU-145 cells were exposed to vehicle, irradiation, 15nM TGS-GNPs, or 15nM Glu-GNPs, or GNPs plus irradiation. The uptake assays of GNP were performed using hemocytometer to count cells and the mass spectrometry was applied to calculate gold mass. The cytotoxicity induced by GNPs, irradiation, or GNPs plus irradiation was measured using a standard colorimetric MTT assay.
RESULTS: Exposure to Glu-GNPs resulted in a three times increase of nanoparticle uptake compared to that of TGS-GNPs in each target cell (p<0.005). Cytoplasmic intracellular uptake of both TGS-GNPs and Glu-GNPs resulted in a growth inhibition by 30.57% and 45.97% respectively, comparing to 15.88% induced by irradiation alone, in prostate cancer cells after exposure to the irradiation. Glu-GNPs showed a greater enhancement, 1.5 to 2 fold increases within 72 hours, on irradiation cytotoxicity compared to TGS-GNPs. Tumour killing, however, did not appear to correlate linearly with nanoparticle uptake concentrations.
CONCLUSION: These results showed that functional glucose-bound gold nanoparticles enhanced radiation sensitivity and toxicity in prostate cancer cells. In vivo studies will be followed to verify our research findings.