Gold nanoparticle imaging and radiotherapy of brain tumors in mice.
Nanomedicine (Lond). 2013 Oct ;8(10):1601-9. Epub 2012 Dec 24. PMID: 23265347
James F Hainfeld
AIM: To test intravenously injected gold nanoparticles for x-ray imaging and radiotherapy enhancement of large, imminently lethal, intracerebral malignant gliomas.
MATERIALS & METHODS: Gold nanoparticles approximately 11 nm in size were injected intravenously and brains imaged using microcomputed tomography. A total of 15 h after an intravenous dose of 4 g Au/kg was administered, brains were irradiated with 30 Gy 100 kVp x-rays.
RESULTS: Gold uptake gave a 19:1 tumor to normal brain ratio with 1.5% w/w gold in tumor, calculated to increase local radiation dose by approximately 300%. Mice receiving gold and radiation (30 Gy) demonstrated 50% long term (>1 year) tumor-free survival, whereas all mice receiving radiation only died.
CONCLUSION: Intravenously injected gold nanoparticles cross the blood-tumor barrier, but are largely blocked by the normal blood-brain barrier, enabling high-resolution computed tomography tumor imaging. Gold radiation enhancement significantly improved long-term survival compared with radiotherapy alone. This approach holds promise to improve therapy of human brain tumors and other cancers.