Grape-Seed Proanthocyanidins are Able to Reverse Intestinal Dysfunction and Metabolic Endotoxemia Induced by a Cafeteria Diet in Wistar Rats.
Nutrients. 2019 Apr 29 ;11(5). Epub 2019 Apr 29. PMID: 31035432
We evaluated the effectiveness of pharmacological doses of grape-seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) in reversing intestinal barrier alterations and local inflammation in female Wistar rats fed a long-term obesogenic diet. Animals were fed a 17-week cafeteria diet (CAF diet), supplemented with daily GSPE doses (100 or 500 mg kgbody weight) during the final two weeks. CAF diet enhanced the intestinal permeation of an orally administered marker (ovalbumin, OVA) and increased the plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in 2-3-fold. Ex vivo Ussing chamber assays showed a 55-70% reduction in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and increased the TNF-α secretions in both small and large intestinal sections with a 25-fold increment in the ileum. Ileal tissues also presented a 4-fold increase of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Both GSPE-treatments were able to restitute TEER values in the ileum and colon and to reduce plasma LPS to basal levels without a dose-dependent effect. However, effects on the OVA permeation and TNF-α secretion were dose and section-specific. GSPE also reduced ileal MPO activity and upregulated claudin 1 gene expression. This study provides evidence of the efficacy of GSPE-supplementation ameliorating diet-induced intestinal dysfunction and metabolic endotoxemia when administered at the end of a long-term obesogenic diet.