Hydroxychavicol sensitizes imatinib-resistant chronic myelogenous leukemia cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by ROS-mediated IAP downregulation.
Anticancer Drugs. 2019 02 ;30(2):167-178. PMID: 30418193
The tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a member of cytokine superfamily, induces apoptosis in a number of tumor cells through the activation of extrinsic apoptotic pathway but shows little or no cytotoxicity toward normal cells. However some tumor cells are inherently resistant to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis, which needs to be addressed to establish TRAIL as a potential chemotherapeutic drug. In this study, our aim was to manipulate TRAIL-apoptosis pathway by hydroxychavicol (HCH), a polyphenol from Piper betel leaf, for the induction of apoptosis in TRAIL resistant chronic myeloid leukemia cell. When imatinib-resistant K562 cells were treated with HCH, it made these K562 cells sensitive to TRAIL. It was observed that HCH downregulated antiapoptotic proteins XIAP and FLIP, whereas the expression of TRAIL receptors, DR4 and DR5, remains unchanged. Moreover, we observed that reactive oxygen species or ROS played a crucial role in the downregulation of FLIP and XIAP because ROS scavenger significantly reversed the decrease of XIAP, and FLIP. Ubiquitin-proteasome pathway was observed to play a crucial role in the downregulation of XIAP and FLIP, as proteasomal inhibitor MG132 significantly reversed the downregulation of XIAP and FLIP. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the combinatorial treatment of TRAIL and HCH as promising alternative therapeutic approach to treat the imatinib-resistant leukemia, which are also resistant to TRAIL.