Improvement in serum amylase and glucose levels in diabetic rats on oral administration of bisdemethoxycurcumin from Curcuma longa and limonoids from Azadirachta indica.
J Food Biochem. 2021 Feb 26:e13674. Epub 2021 Feb 26. PMID: 33634871
Curcuma longa and Azadirachta indica are traditionally used in Indian cuisine and Ayurvedic medicine as nutraceuticals against diabetes. The crude C. longa isopropanol extract, bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC), the purified bioactive component from C. longa, and limonoids azadiradione, gedunin from A. indica, are able to inhibit in vitro the antidiabetic target human pancreatic α-amylase independently. However, no reports on their in vivo efficacy in animal models exist. Thus, the antidiabetic effect of these orally administered human pancreatic α-amylase inhibitors was performed on streptozotocin-induced Sprague-Dawley rats. Initially, the normal rats were treated with test compounds (10-100 mg/kg of body weight) in corn oil (5 ml/kg),and as no lethality was observed in these doses, further studies were carried out with lowest concentration of 10 mg/kg of body weight. A reduction in area under curve (AUC) suggested glucose-lowering effect of these compounds in starch fed diabetic rats. The efficacy study showed a significant improvement in body weight, blood glucose levels, serum amylase, and fructosamine levels as well in other serum parameters associated with diabetes with respect to liver and renal functions. Hence, under in vivo conditions, inhibition of α-amylase activity by BDMC and limonoids affirms it as one of the mechanisms of action resulting in reduction of blood glucose levels. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Bisdemethoxycurcumin from C. longa and limonoids, namely, azadiradione and gedunin, from A. indica are potent inhibitors of the antidiabetic target human pancreatic α-amylase. Oral Starch Tolerance Test(OSTT) and 28-day efficacy study to check the effect of these orally administered inhibitors in diabetic rat models showed significant improvements in serum blood glucose and amylase levels as well as in other diabetes related serum parameters, namely, bilirubin, lipids, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and urea. The study contributes to understanding the action and efficacy of these pancreatic α-amylase inhibitors and suggests a potential role for them as nutraceuticals/therapeutics in management of post-prandial hyperglycemia.