Isoniazid may have mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Genetic effects of isoniazid and the relationship to in vivo and in vitro biotransformation.
Mutat Res. 1984 Aug-Sep;137(2-3):61-9. PMID: 6381996
The mutagenic activity of isoniazid, N-acetyl-isoniazid and hydrazine dihydrochloride was investigated in S. typhimurium. Isoniazid was found to possess a weak mutagenic activity only in repair-deficient strains TA1535 and TA100 as well as in the plasmid-containing strain TA92 (10-30 mg/plate) in the Ames test without metabolic activation. Addition of microsomal enzymes by S9 mix decreased this direct mutagenic activity. In contrast, preincubation of isoniazid with crude liver homogenate from mice, rats or Syrian golden hamsters for 4 h prior to plating with bacteria liberated a mutagenic compound which is equally active in both repair-deficient and repair wild-type strains (0.5-5 mg/plate). This activation pathway is independent of NADPH, is heat-sensitive and is operative only in a total liver homogenate in suspension. The highest capacity for mutagenic activation was achieved with liver homogenate from hamsters, followed by that from mice and rats. Furthermore, this mutagenic activation is paralleled by formation of hydrazine, as demonstrated in colorimetric measurements with p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde. N-Acetyl-isoniazid is without mutagenic activity under similar conditions, and liberation of hydrazine was never detected. This means that, besides having a weak direct genetic activity, isoniazid is a promutagen, and formation of hydrazine is the first step in metabolic activation. It is concluded that the genotoxic properties of isoniazid in mammals are primarily determined by the pharmacokinetic behavior of the ultimate reactive metabolite. This result must be taken into consideration in risk assessment performed for mutagenic and carcinogenic properties of isoniazid in man.