Korean Red Ginseng extract induces angiogenesis through activation of glucocorticoid receptor.
J Ginseng Res. 2017 Oct ;41(4):477-486. Epub 2016 Sep 8. PMID: 29021694
BACKGROUND: Our previous studies have demonstrated that ginsenoside-Rg1 can promote angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo through activation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Furthermore, microRNA (miRNA) expression profiling has shown that Rg1 can modulate the expression of a subset of miRNAs to induce angiogenesis. Moreover, Rb1 was shown to be antiangiogenic through activation of a differentpathway. These studies highlight the important functions of miRNAs on ginseng-regulated physiological processes. The aim of this study was to determine the angiogenic properties of Korean Red Ginseng extract (KGE).
METHODS AND RESULTS: Combining in vitro and in vivo data, KGE at 500 μg/mL was found to induce angiogenesis. According to the miRNA sequencing, 484 differentially expressed miRNAs were found to be affected by KGE. Among them, angiogenic-related miRNAs; miR-15b, -23a, -214, and -377 were suppressed by KGE. Meanwhile, their corresponding angiogenic proteins were stimulated, including vascular endothelial growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and MET transmembrane tyrosine kinase. The miRNAs-regulated signaling pathways of KGE were then found by Cignal 45-Pathway Reporter Array, proving that KGE could activate GR.
CONCLUSION: KGE was found capable of inducing angiogenesis both in vivo and in vitro models through activating GR. This study provides a valuable insight into the angiogenic mechanisms depicted by KGE in relation to specific miRNAs.