Ameliorative Effects of Oral Glucosamine on Insulin Resistance and Pancreatic Tissue Damage in Experimental Wistar rats on a High-fat Diet.
Comp Med. 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3. PMID: 34082859
Hyperlipidemia due to a high-fat diet (HFD) is a risk factor for inducing insulin resistance (IR) and adverse effects onpancreaticβ-cells in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. This relationship may be due to activation of the hexosaminebiosynthesis pathway. Administration of exogenous glucosamine (GlcN) can increase the end product of this pathway(uridine-5'-diphosphate-N-acetyl-glucosamine), which can mediate IR and protein glycosylation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of oral GlcN and HFD on IR and pancreatic histologic damage in a 22 wk study of 4 groups of male Wistar rats: control group with normal chow diet, HFD group (24%. g/g lard), GlcN group (500 mg/kg-1 per day of glucosamine hydrochloride in drinking water) and HFD plus oral GlcN. Metabolic variables related to IR that were measured included triglycerides (TG), free fatty acids (FFAs) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Histopathologic evaluation of the pancreas was also performed. The results showed IR in the HFD group, which had increased pancreatic nuclear pyknosis and vacuolization, with fatty infiltration and structural alteration of the islets of Langerhans. TG, FFAs and MDA were higher in serum and pancreatic tissue as compared with the control group. The GlcN group did not develop IR and had only mild nuclear pyknosis with no significant change in the pancreatic content of TG, FFAs and MDA. However, the combined administration of GlcN and HFD attenuated IR and improved TG, FFAs and MDA levels in serum and pancreatic tissue and the pancreatic histopathologic changes, with no significant differences as compared withthe control group. These findings suggest that the oral GlcN at a dose of 500 mg/kg-1 is protective against IR and the pancreatic histologic damage caused by HFD.