Orthosiphol A from the aerial parts of Orthosiphon aristatus is putatively responsible for hypoglycemic effect via alpha-glucosidase inhibition.
Nat Prod Commun. 2014 May ;9(5):639-41. PMID: 25026708
An infusion of Orthosiphon aristatus has long been used for diabetes therapy; however, the active principles remained unknown. Herein, we report the identification of the putative agents responsible for this antidiabetic activity using an a-glucosidase-guided isolation. Four flavonoids named sinensetin (1), salvigenin (2), tetramethylscutellarein (3) and 3,7,4'-tri-O-methylkaempferol (4), together with a diterpenoid named orthosiphol A (5), were characterized, based on analysis of their spectroscopic data. Flavonoids 3 and 4 inhibited yeast a-glucosidase with IC,o values of 6.34 and 0.75 mM, respectively, whereas orthosiphol A (5) selectively inhibited intestinal maltase with an IC5o, value of 6.54 mM. A kinetic investigation of 5 indicated that it retarded maltase function in a noncompetitive manner.