Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics added to dairy products: Uses and applications to manage type 2 diabetes.
Food Res Int. 2021 Apr ;142:110208. Epub 2021 Feb 10. PMID: 33773683
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) is associated with hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and gut dysbiosis. Probiotics and prebiotics can ameliorate T2DM through different mechanisms of action, such as reducing oxidative stress, or the inhibition of pro-inflammatory markers, among others. Multiple studies in vitro and in vivo have demonstrated the reduction of hyperglycemia, depressive behaviors, obesity, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance in diabetic patients through the consumption of dairy products, such as yogurt, fermented milk, and cheese, enriched with potential probiotic strains, prebiotic ingredients, and synbiotics (understood as a combination of both). Therefore, this review aims to provide an updated overview about the impact of dairy foods with probiotics, prebiotics, or synbiotics to prevent and manage T2DM, the mechanism of action related to the host health, and the future tendencies for developing new dairy foods. Despite the addition of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics to dairy products could be highly beneficial, more evidence, especially from clinical trials, is needed to develop evidence-based T2DM prevention guidelines.