A review of the trace element concentration changes in brain tumors. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Trace element concentration changes in brain tumors: a review.
Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2019 Sep 11. Epub 2019 Sep 11. PMID: 31509337
Trace elements have been implicated in cancer, since the levels differ between cancerous and non-cancerous tissue, different cancer types, and different malignancy grades. However, few studies have been conducted on trace element concentrations in brain tumors. Thus, this study aims to review the available literature on trace element changes related to brain tumors, and to identify gaps in the literature. A literature search was done on Google Scholar and PubMed from their start date to January 2018, using terms related to trace element concentration and brain tumors. All brain tumor types were included, and articles could be published in any year. From this search, only 11 articles on this topic could be found. Tumors had significantly higher concentrations of arsenic, thorium, lanthanum, lutetium, cerium, and gadolinium compared to control brain samples. Compared to adjacent tissue, tumor tissue indicated increased magnesium, decreased copper, and contradicting results for zinc. Furthermore, the higher the malignancy grade, the lower the calcium, cadmium, iron, phosphorus and sulfur concentration, and the higher the mercury, manganese, lead, and zinc concentrations. In conclusion, altered trace element levels differ amongst different tumor types, as well as malignancy grades. Consequently, it is impossible to compare data from these studies, and available data is still considerably inconclusive. Ideally, future studies should have a sufficient samples size, compare different tumor types, and compare tumors with adjacent healthy tissue as well as with samples from unaffected matched brains. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.