Sialic acid reduces acute endotoxemia-induced liver dysfunction in the rat.
Shock. 2009 Aug;32(2):228-35. PMID:19060786
Endotoxemia caused by LPS is a life-threatening and inflammatory condition contributing to multiple organ failure. Viruses or bacteria require sialic acid (SA) for target-cell binding. We suggest that exogenous SA through masking or mediating the binding of LPS to the target cells may attenuate LPS-induced liver dysfunction and cecal ligation and puncture-induced shock. We found that SA can directly scavenge O2-, H2O2, and NO activity by a chemiluminescence analyzer and bind to LPS with high affinity using surface plasmon resonance. Intravenous SA significantly increased plasma SA concentration within 4 h. We then assessed the potential effect of SA on LPS-induced acute endotoxemia in the rat. Intravenous LPS (10-50 mg/kg) dose-dependently increased plasma endotoxin and reactive oxygen species in the blood, bile, and liver and increased plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels as well as TNF-alpha, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1, IL-1beta, and IL-6 levels in the rats. Thirty minutes after LPS stimulation, SA decreased LPS-enhanced endotoxin level, oxidative stress, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels, and cytokine concentration and ameliorated histopathologic alteration in the liver. We found that SA increased LPS-depressed Mn-superoxide dismutase, CuZn-superoxide dismutase, and heat shock protein 70 and decreased LPS-enhanced iNOS and proapoptotic Bax protein expression in the liver by Western blot. Sialic acid was given after treatment to rats subjected to cecal ligation and puncture, and the hypotensive effect was blunted for 6 h. In conclusion, SA treatment can counteract LPS-enhanced acute endotoxemia and oxidative injury via a direct scavenging reactive oxygen species activity and neutralization potential.