Tart Cherry Extract Containing Chlorogenic Acid, Quercetin, and Kaempferol Inhibits the Mitochondrial Apoptotic Cell Death Elicited by Airborne PMin Human Epidermal Keratinocytes.
Antioxidants (Basel). 2021 Mar 13 ;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 13. PMID: 33805724
Tart cherry (L.), a medicinal food containing high concentrations of phytochemicals, has a variety of antioxidant activities and health benefits. Here, we investigate the functional effect of tart cherry during apoptotic cell death elicited by airborne particulate matter with a diameter of<10μm (PM) in human epidermal keratinocyte HaCaT cells. The PMparticles significantly induced cytotoxicity in the HaCaT cells. The decrease in cell viability was restored upon treatment with tart cherry extract (200μg/mL) containing chlorogenic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol. Tart cherry inhibited the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) responsible for the distinctive activations of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in PM-treated HaCaT cells. Interestingly, tart cherry significantly inhibited the expression of apoptosis-related genes (B-Cell Lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax), and caspase-3) as regulated by the activation of transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). These results demonstrate that tart cherry is a medicinal food that blocks the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis induced by PMin human epidermal keratinocytes.