In Vitro Effects of Low Doses ofβ-Caryophyllene, Ascorbic Acid and d-Glucosamine on Human Chondrocyte Viability and Inflammation.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2021 Mar 23 ;14(3). Epub 2021 Mar 23. PMID: 33806983
β-caryophyllene (BCP), a plant-derived sesquiterpene, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of BCP in combination with ascorbic acid (AA) and d-glucosamine (GlcN) against macrophage-mediated inflammation on in vitroprimary human chondrocytes. Changes in cell viability, intracellular ROS generation, gene expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, metalloproteinases (MMPs), collagen type II and aggrecan were analyzed in primary human chondrocytes exposed to the conditioned medium (CM) of activated U937 monocytesand subsequently treated with BCP alone or in combination with AA and GlcN. The CM-induced chondrocyte cytotoxicity was reduced by the presence of low doses of BCP alone or in combination with AA and GlcN. The exposure of cells to CM significantly increasedκ1 andexpression, but when BCP was added to the inflamed cells, alone or in combination with AA and GlcN, gene transcription for all these molecules was restored to near baseline values. Moreover, chondrocytes increased the expression ofandwhen stimulated with AA and GlcN alone or in combination with BCP. This study showed the synergistic anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of BCP, AA and GlcN at low doses on human chondrocyte cultures treated with the CM of activated U937 cells. Moreover, the combination of the three molecules was able to promote the expression ofand. All together, these data could suggest that BCP, AA and GlcN exert a chondro-protective action.