Anti-proliferative effects ofγ-tocotrienol are associated with suppression of c-Myc expression in mammary tumour cells.
Cell Prolif. 2015 Aug ;48(4):421-35. Epub 2015 Jun 19. PMID: 26096843
OBJECTIVES: Aberrant c-Myc activity plays a central role in cancer transformation.γ-tocotrienol is a member of the vitamin E family that displays potent anti-cancer activity. Here, studies were conducted to determine the role of c-Myc in mediating anti-proliferative effects of γ-tocotrienol in mammary cancer cells.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Treatment effects on mouse +SA and human MCF-7 mammary cancer cell proliferation were determined by MTT assay and Ki-67 staining. Protein expression was determined by western blot analysis. Immunofluorescence staining and qRT-PCR were used to characterize cellular c-Myc and MYC levels respectively.
RESULTS: Anti-proliferative effects ofγ-tocotrienol were associated with reduction in total c-Myc and phosphorylated-c-Myc-serine 62, and increase in phosphorylated-c-Myc-threonine 58 levels. γ-tocotrienol also reduced PI3K/Akt/mTOR and Ras/MEK/Erk mitogenic signalling, cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 levels, and increased p27levels. However, γ-tocotrienol had no effect on MYC mRNA levels. γ-tocotrienol also increased levels of FBW7 (E3 ligase that initiates ubiquitination of c-Myc), but had no effect on serine/threonine phosphatase PP2A or isomerase Pin 1 levels. Combined treatment with GSK3α/β inhibitor LiCl or proteasome inhibitor MG132 blocked γ-tocotrienol-induced reductions in c-Myc.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that anti-proliferative effects ofγ-tocotrienol are associated with reduction in c-Myc that results from increase in GSK-3α/β-dependent ubiquitination and degradation, rather than from reduction in c-Myc synthesis in +SA and MCF-7 mammary cancer cells.