Vitexin is a promising therapeutic candidate treatment for epilepsy in the immature brain. - GreenMedInfo Summary
Vitexin reduces epilepsy after hypoxic ischemia in the neonatal brain via inhibition of NKCC1.
J Neuroinflammation. 2018 Jun 20 ;15(1):186. Epub 2018 Jun 20. PMID: 29925377
BACKGROUND: Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage, characterized by tissue loss and neurologic dysfunction, is a leading cause of mortality and a devastating disease of the central nervous system. We have previously shown that vitexin has been attributed various medicinal properties and has been demonstrated to have neuroprotective roles in neonatal brain injury models. In the present study, we continued to reinforce and validate the basic understanding of vitexin (45 mg/kg) as a potential treatment for epilepsy and explored its possible underlying mechanisms.
METHODS: P7 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats that underwent right common carotid artery ligation and rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (RBMECs) were used for the assessment of Na-K-Clco-transporter1 (NKCC1) expression, BBB permeability, cytokine expression, and neutrophil infiltration by western blot, q-PCR, flow cytometry (FCM), and immunofluorescence respectively. Furthermore, brain electrical activity in freely moving rats was recorded by electroencephalography (EEG).
RESULTS: Our data showed that NKCC1 expression was attenuated in vitexin-treated rats compared to the expression in the HI group in vivo. Oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD) was performed on RBMECs to explore the role of NKCC1 and F-actin in cytoskeleton formation with confocal microscopy, N-(ethoxycarbonylmethyl)-6-methoxyquinolinium bromide, and FCM. Concomitantly, treatment with vitexin effectively alleviated OGD-induced NKCC1 expression, which downregulated F-actin expression in RBMECs. In addition, vitexin significantly ameliorated BBB leakage and rescued the expression of tight junction-related protein ZO-1. Furthermore, inflammatory cytokine and neutrophil infiltration were concurrently and progressively downregulated with decreasing BBB permeability in rats. Vitexin also significantly suppressed brain electrical activity in neonatal rats.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results confirmed that vitexin effectively alleviates epilepsy susceptibility through inhibition of inflammation along with improved BBB integrity. Our study provides a strong rationale for the further development of vitexin as a promising therapeutic candidate treatment for epilepsy in the immature brain.